Home / AFL Blog / July 2017 / The Path to 100G Single Lambda in the Data Center - Part 4
Blog posts

The Path to 100G Single Lambda in the Data Center - Part 4

Maury Wood, Test & Inspection

Part 4 (part 1 - part 2 - part 3)

One merit of moving to externally modulated lasers (and leaving behind intensity modulation schemes) is that a single "continuous wave" operated VCSEL can supply sufficient light power through an optical splitter to four external optical modulators saving power, cost and space. The modulators likely make up the difference (and possibly more) from a budget perspective.

Optical modulators are probably the most baffling element of the transceiver signal chain for people without a degree in optical engineering. The device structure used in these applications is called a Mach-Zehnder modulator and is constructed typically with lithium niobate or more recently with polymer-based materials. Lithium niobate is also the magical material used to build the narrowband SAW and BAW filters used in cellular RF front-ends for smartphones. Recently, Ranovus has introduced silicon photonic modulators based on a ring resonator structure, BrPhotonics has announced products based on thin film polymers on silicon, and LightWave Logic has revealed work on high speed optical modulators using organic chromophores.

The theory of operation of MZMs is somewhat obscure. Mach-Zehnder interferometers use the electro-optic effect in which the index of refraction of a material is altered by the electric field applied to it, slightly and precisely changing the speed of light passing through the material. Specifically, to perform the amplitude modulation needed for PAM-4 based 100G single wavelength transmission, the laser light is divided into two paths with a beam splitter, with one path subjected to the variable electric field (signals coming from the upstream linear driver). The two beams are then recombined. The relative phase delay between the two paths then leads to constructive or destructive interference, yielding either an increase in amplitude or a decrease in amplitude at the MZM output. Oclaro and NeoPhotonics are the high volume leaders in MZM device design and manufacturing.

Mach-Zehnder Modulator
Mach-Zehnder Modulator (MZM) functional diagram and physical implementation
(Image courtesy of Optics Express)

The MZM output is then coupled to the outgoing single-mode or multimode fiber aligned using V-grooves, either free space or using micro lenses. This completes the 100 Gbps Tx signal chain. We'll look at the 100G per lambda Rx signal chain in the next installment later this fall.

Posted: 7/11/2017 by AFL | with 0 comment(s)
Filed under: AFL., Test and Inspection
Blog post currently doesn't have any comments.
Leave comment

 Security code

Recent Posts

FTTx: Everything You Need to Know

8/17/2018 7:34:30 AM | with 0 comments
As an end-to-end solutions provider, AFL prides itself on always being there for its customers. If you have any questions about the FTTx market, you’re in the right place.

Utility FTTx Development

8/15/2018 1:26:57 PM | with 0 comments
This new AFL white paper, “Leveraging ADSS Cable Technology in Utility FTTx Networks,” details the advantages of using all-dielectric self-supporting (ADSS) cable technology in FTTx solutions. 

Streetcar Project Snapshot

8/10/2018 11:44:47 AM | with 0 comments
AFL specializes in many areas and tries to meet every customer’s needs. The AFL Assemblies and Components’ extensive product portfolio has improved streetcar systems in big city locations, such as Atlanta, Detroit and Cincinnati.

Oil and Gas: All You Need to Know

8/8/2018 12:29:01 PM | with 0 comments
As an end-to-end solutions provider, AFL prides itself on always being there for its customers, especially when it comes to oil and gas. AFL has made many helpful guides, videos, white papers and more just for you.

Data Centers: All You Need to Know

8/6/2018 8:25:28 AM | with 0 comments
Explore the new AFL resource center and discover all that it has to offer!  AFL has streamlined all data center content into one unified area on this new hub.  This Data Center Stream is just one of many new components to the resource center. 

Blog Tags

100G 12R 12S 2014 2015 2016 21s 22S 62S 70R 70S Access Networks accessories ADSS Aerial Aeros AFL AFL. Air Blown Fiber AlumaCore Aluminum APM-101 APM-102 APTA ASIS Associates Best Practices BICSI Blog bus Cable Cable-Tec Careers Case Case Studies Catalogs Cell Tower Demarcation Certification Cleaning Cleaning Supplies Cleaver CO2 Lasers Community Outreach compression Compression Accessories Conductor Connections Connectivity Connectors Co-ops Core-alignment Corporate CT-30 CTIA CWDM DAS Data Center Data Centers Dead Ends Demonstration DT Dura-Line DWDM eABF electric Enclosure end-to-end solutions Energy Enterprise Equipment ESB Expo Exterior Distribution Cabinet Facebook Fall Fall 2013 FAST SC FASTConnect FC Features Fiber Fiber Cleaver Fiber Connector Inspection Fiber Distribution Fiber Laser Fiber Optic Fiber Optic Cable Fiber Optic Intrusion Detection System Fiber Optic Training Fiber OpticTraining Fiber Prep Fiber Security Fiber Shaping Fiber Splicing fibre optic cable field installable Field Splicer flexscan Flickr FOCIS FSM-100 FTTh FTTx Fujikura FuseConnect Fusion Fusion Splicer Fusion Splicers Fusion Splicing Gas Glass Processing Google Governor Nikki Haley Grand Canyon Greenville Grounding Hardware High-Wire Walk HiTemp IDEAA IEEE infrastructure Inspection Instagram Install Installation Installing Instructions Integrated Solution International Sales Meeting Interns Kit Laser Last Mile LAZERMaster LC Light Brigade LightLink LightWave LinkedIn live line LL580 LL-580 LMHD LZM-100 M210 M310 Maintenance Metro Ethernet Metro-E MicroCore Mining Month of Service MSOs Network Networks NFPA Nik Wallenda Noyes OCS OEM Oil One-Click OPGW Optic Optical Optical Connectivity Optical Sensing OSP OTDR Outside Plant Paper PCS-100 Stripper Perimeter Security System PES Photonics Photonics West PhotonicsWest PM Splicing Poli-Mod power Procedures Product Registration Products Rail Railway Recoater Recruiting resource center Resources Rogue Rural Utilities Rusty Williams SB01 SC SCADA SCTE SDN Selection Sensing Services single circuit outage Single Lambda SkyWrap Small-Cell Smart-Grid Smartphone Snapshot Social Software Defined Networking Solutions Specialty Splicer SPIE Splice Enclosure Splicer Splicers Splicing ST Stockbridge Dampers Stranded Stainless Steel Cable Stream Streetcar Structured Cabling Study substation SuperMobility Support SWAGE Swaging SWAT SWFT System systems T&D Terminal Termination Instructions Test Test &Inspection Test and Inspection Testing Titan Tools Trade Shows Training Transit transmission Transportation Tutorials Twitter Upstate Alliance Utility VFI V-Groove Video Videos Vodafone WDM WDM900 We Connect Webinar Website White White Paper White Papers White-Paper Wi-Fi Winter Wireless Wrapping Tube Cable

Sign Up for eConnect!